The ankle joint is composed of three bones.  The talus working as a hinge surrounded on its top side by the end of the shin bone, the tibia, and the smaller outer bone, the fibula.  Frequent injuries occur to this joint secondary to the stress of the upper body rotating on this relatively small joint. 

Injuries to the ankle include sprains, strains, and fractures.  These injuries can lead to residual instability or pain requiring additional analysis and treatment.  Common findings may include damage to the talar dome (osteochondral lesions), chronic ligamentous laxity, and prominences of bone resulting in bursal swelling and irritation such as a Haglund’s deformity.

In some cases surgery is necessary to repair damaged structures.  Surgery to the ankle may be a conventional open repair or minimally invasive.  Minimally invasive techniques may be used for fracture reduction, arthroscopic repairs, and grafting.  When necessary, ankle fusions may be used to treat a painful arthritic ankle joint.  New advances in technology are leading to total replacements of the ankle joint. 




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